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2015 GSPR

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Research on Gender Equality Practices by the General Public and Obstacles

Analysis of the Party Nomination Process in the 19th General Election and Measures to Increase Female Representation

Gender Perspective on Physical and Sexuality Education among High School Students in the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea

Importance of Subjective Health Condition and Women's Social Environment

Structure and Characteristics of Women’s Unemployment Based on the Extended Unemployment

Policies for the Settlement and Social Activities of Woman Turning to Farming and Rural Areas

Empowering the Parental Capacity of Female North Korean Defectors

Research on Gender Equality Practices by the General Public and Obstacles DownloadPDF
The objective of this study is to examine various activities in elementary, middle and high schools that promote or impede gender equality. This study looked at how gender roles are divided in academic, extracurricular, and interpersonal activities in schools, both in class and outside of class, and the related impact on jobs and household activities in the future, by school-related and individual-related variables.
To this end, this study surveyed 7,792 students, parents and 1,200 teachers. In addition, focus group interviews were conducted with 91 students, parents and teachers. The results indicate that the degrees of gender egalitarianism, gender separation in academic and extracurricular activities, and sexual division of roles vary widely depending on school-related and individual characteristicrelated variables.
The results of this study suggest the need to develop a range of policybased plans for schools, families and educational authorities in order to combat juveniles’ stereotypes about gender roles and reduce the inequities in the division of gender roles.
Analysis of the Party Nomination Process in the 19th General Election and Measures to Increase Female Representation DownloadPDF
This study aims at developing measures to improve female political participation through discussing the party selection process of the 19th general election, due to its significance for female political participation. Therefore, the paper analyzed the major parties’ candidate selection processes and its impact on the selection of female candidates, and then explored the measures to improve the ways to increase female representation including related rules and systems for the party selection process. To this end, we reviewed the theoretical exploration of the relationship between the party selection process and female political representation; analyzed the party selection processes in the 17th, 18th, and 19th general elections in terms of how they change over the time and with emphasis on the operation process and problems of the party selection of the 19th general election; and finally proposed measures for making the selection process women-friendly and improving rules and systems. Our research methods were literature reviews, survey on female candidates in the 19th national election, and interviews on party selection committees.
Our study yielded several significant insights to party selection processes over the time and especially in the 19th general election. The female candidates revealed considerable frustration over the persistent influence of the established political powers and their factoralism. Especially those who failed to be selected by the party firmly believed that their failure was due to the factoral interests. On the other hand, the selected candidates insisted that they were selected because of their professional achievements and experiences. This gap in the fairness perception of the party selection needs to be filled to encourage female aspirants’ active participation in future elections and the parties surely have a role to play. Female candidates of the 19th general election, whether selected or not, let out a unified voice over the parties’ selection process and systems such as selection committee: they believe that the composition of the selection committee widely influences the selection outcome and therefore it needs a 50% quota of women, equal allocation of party insiders and outsiders, and participation of progressive persons who place high value on female political participation. Therefore, the selection committee and its women-friendly operation by participation of feminist members need to continue to be an issue. At the same time, its operation rules need to take women’s political capacities into consideration and include alternatives to open competition between female candidates. Finally, female candidates themselves should make more active and visible efforts to build a firm foundation in the districts and the parties should support them.
Gender Perspective on Physical and Sexuality Education among High School Students in the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea DownloadPDF
This study attempted to examine the awareness of and attitudes toward gender-sensitive
physical and sexuality education, as well as these programs’ effectiveness, among high school students.
For this purpose, we conducted a survey of 1,057 students in the Seoul capital area (Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi Province region).
This study found that whether and to what degree gender sensitivity was reflected in the operation of physical education classes can affect female students’ attitudes towards exercise, and ultimately lowered the impact of the classes on health/physical fitness and the pleasure of exercising.
Indeed, knowledge of and attitudes toward sex were highly correlated with the effectiveness of sexuality education, and knowledge about sex was a significant factor in determining related attitudes.
In order to promote female students’ health and their participation in physical education classes, we recommended the development of new sports and games that are customized to better meeting their needs.
We also confirmed that adolescents’ knowledge and attitudes toward sex played a significant role in them not only recognizing biological differences by gender and enhancing sexual consciousness, but also respecting their own and others’ sexuality. Therefore, we suggest that gender-sensitive sexuality education should be implemented.
Importance of Subjective Health Condition and Women's Social Environment DownloadPDF
Studies based on social environments and their impact on the health conditions of women have been less frequently conducted compared to studies on the correlation between biological settings and women’s health condition.
Therefore, this research has two goals. he first is to examine the relationship between subjective and objective health conditions to ascertain how important subjective health condition may be for women’s health.
The second is to examine the relationship between social environment and subjective health condition among women by means of longitudinal data.
This research made use of the Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women and Family (KLoWF), and Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis were employed for data examination.
This study confirmed the fact that subjective health condition and objective health conditions treated by a medical doctor are highly correlated.
Those with unfavorable social environments are likely to experience their health condition shifting from being good to being bad at an earlier age than are their counterparts in their life course.
The findings in this study could have critical policy implications in terms of improved prevention strategies against diseases for women with unfavorable social environments.
Structure and Characteristics of Women’s Unemployment Based on the Extended Unemployment DownloadPDF
During the financial crisis at the end of the 1990s, unemployment rates in South Korea spiked and provoked related research on unemployment. However, little work on gender gaps in unemployment rates has since been undertaken, partially because the unemployment rate for women continues to remain lower than the rate for men. This paper attempts to observe the trend in the women’s unemployment rate since the year 2000 and analyze why a gender gap in unemployment rates exists. The unemployment rate serves as a measure of
underutilized labor supply and can be defined in a number of ways. Considering the limitations manifested in the official indicator of the unemployment rate, this paper suggests an alternative indicator that would include the time-related underemployed, discouraged workers and other inactive individuals. The official women’s unemployment rate was 2.7 percent in 2011, lower than 3.3 percent recorded among men. When applying the proposed indicator instead, the women’s unemployment rate for that year increases to 9.1 percent, actually slightly higher than the corresponding men’s rate (9.0 percent).
Policies for the Settlement and Social Activities of Woman Turning to Farming and Rural Areas DownloadPDF
As a growing number of people turn to farming or to residence in farm villages, the phenomenon is drawing considerable social and policy attention.
However, as only a fraction of this attention has been focused on the women involved, their actual status, the difficulties they face and their policy-related demands have yet to have been identified.
Through in-depth interviews, this study analyzed the reasons why such women are turning to farming or to farm villages, as well as their identity, the education of their children, their economic activities and the formation of relationships with fellow villagers.
The interviews were carried out with 15 women who had moved to farm villages in Jinan-gun and 15 women living around the country, including in Seocheon and Hongcheon.
In order for these women who have turned to farming or to farm villages to successfully settle in these villages and contribute to their rural communities, additional opportunities should be provided for them to demonstrate their capabilities and talents.
In addition, the culture of the rural communities needs to evolve to allow women to make their voices heard.
Empowering the Parental Capacity of Female North Korean Defectors DownloadPDF
This study aims at analyzing parental capacity of North Korean female defectors in South Korea and exploring measures to support and strengthen their parental capacity.
Considering the double burden of North Korean female defectors for settling in a new society and performing the role of parents, this study begins defining the concept of parental capacity in three aspects; family life, social adaptation and parental obligations.
Next, the study conducts survey and in-depth/focus group interviews targeting North Korean female/male defectors and their adolescent children.
The analysis of their family life demonstrates that North Korean defectors place more value on their parent-child relationship rather than their husband-wife one and tend to be most content with their parent-child relationship compared to other aspects of life.
It demonstrates the importance of their parent-child relationship and expectation towards their children.
Second, the challenges North Korean female defectors face as parents vary depending on the age of children.
Those with preschool children particularly concern finding a job to finance the cost of child-rearing. As their children grow older (elementary school and higher), however, female defectors find more difficult in supporting their children’s education due to lack of reliable information and financial resources.
As to their parental selfefficacy, North Korean female defectors view themselves positively in performing the basic parental role and maintaining a close relationship with their children, while showing low confidence in parenting and their lack of ability to guide children.
It is largely to do with the lack of access to parenting information since their resource of information is limited to other North Korean defectors and the Internet.
Third, the biggest challenge North Korean female defectors face is financial hardship, followed by parenting difficulties and language problems, which similarly plagues the most male defectors in South Korea. In relation to work, female defectors found the biggest difficulty in balancing demands from their job and parenting, followed by low wages and long working hours in comparison to male defectors who answered long-working hours to be the biggest difficulty. Based on the results, following policy suggestions should be taken into consider.
In order to sustain stable family life, family support programs should be incorporated as part of the education programs at Hana Center, while bolstering their parental roles in collaboration with relevant local institutions.
Furthermore, parenting education programs tailored towards each age group of children should be offered to North Korean defector parents.
Lastly, effective job training, particularly at Hana Center and continuous employment supports should be provided to North Korean defectors.
Making more efforts to address social prejudice and discrimination against North Korean defectors is also crucial for them to settle in the society.